There are many times, for one reason or another, that I need to transfer a Drupal website from one server to another. I was used to using tools like Filezilla and phpMyAdmin to get most of the heavy lifting done, but after doing this many times I've found the command line to be my friend.
I use linode.com so I know how my server is configured, what's installed, and more importantly have shell access. If you use a shared host this guide/checklist probably won't help you out too much.
To prep the site I do a couple of quick changes:
- Set to offline mode to prevent any more changes taking place in the database
- Turn off caching/compressing mechanisms and flush all caches
Once those are done, here are the steps I use to transfer the site:
In my case the folder structure is usually set to something like the following:
So start by moving to the root directory of the website you want to transfer.
Create a tarball of current site files. The resulting file will contain all the files we need to transfer to our new server.
tar -zcvf example.com.tar.gz example.com
Make a dump of mysql database.
mysqldump -u [user] -p [databasename] > example.com.sql
Use scp to transfer files to target server
scp -P [port] example.com.tar.gz email@example.com:~/
scp -P [port] example.com.sql firstname.lastname@example.org:~/
Extract tarball on new server in appropriate directory
tar -zxvf example.com.tar.gz
Create new database
mysql -u root -p
create database 'database';
Create new user on the database
CREATE USER 'user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Note: If you need to see what users are already created or need to delete a user you can use these commands:
SELECT host, user from mysql.user;
DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE user='username';
Grant privileges to newly created user
GRANT ALL ON 'database'.* TO 'user'@'localhost';
Restore MySQL dump to new database
mysql -u root -p database < /path/to/example.com.sql;
Change the drupal settings.php file to correspond with new database and user that you created earlier
$db_url = 'mysqli://[user]:[password]@localhost/[database name]';
Enable the website in apache
sudo a2ensite example.com
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload
You might need to update the permissions on the site/default/files folder for apache to access
sudo chgrp -R www-data /var/www/html
Also a good idea to add a cron job for the site. This will run the cron script at 1:10a.m. everyday.
10 1 * * * /usr/bin/wget -O - -q -t 1 http://www.example.com/cron.php